· Copper mine production continues to grow exponentially, at an average annual rate of %, and has done each year since 1900. It will reach million metric tonnes in 2021. In turn, annual usage since 1900 has grown an average of %, reaching million metric tonnes in .
The ISCR process occurs from 400 to 1,200 feet below ground in a bedrock layer beneath the lower aquifer unit where drinking water supplies are withdrawn. The insitu process uses a mild mixture of % water and % sulfuric acid that slowly dissolves copper in the bedrock.