Jamaica's economy is mixed but increasingly based on services, notably tourism and finance. Since independence in 1962, the country has developed markedly but unevenly. Mining and manufacturing became more important to the economy in the latter part of the 20th century, while the export of agricultural commodities declined. Starting in the 1980s, the state reduced its role .
Rapid degradation of disturbed soil from a karst bauxite mine in Jamaica was recorded. Substantial macronutrient losses were incurred during a short (1 month) or a long (12 months) storage of the replaced topsoils during frequent wet/dry changes. The results suggested very high rates (gt;70% in the first year) of soil degradation from storage, alongside moderate rates .